Alexander L. George and Andrew Bennett
The use of case studies to build and test theories in political science and the other social sciences has increased in recent years. Many scholars have argued that the social sciences rely too heavily on quantitative research and formal models and have attempted to develop and refine rigorous methods for using case studies. This text presents a comprehensive analysis of research methods using case studies and examines the place of case studies in social science methodology. It argues that case studies, statistical methods, and formal models are complementary rather than competitive.
The book explains how to design case study research that will produce results useful to policymakers and emphasizes the importance of developing policy-relevant theories. It offers three major contributions to case study methodology: an emphasis on the importance of within-case analysis, a detailed discussion of process tracing, and development of the concept of typological theories. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences will be particularly useful to graduate students and scholars in social science methodology and the philosophy of science, as well as to those designing new research projects, and will contribute greatly to the broader debate about scientific methods.
Michael McCarthy, Felicity O'Dell
English Vocabulary in Use. Advanced - the fourth in the family of best-selling vocabulary reference and practice books from elementary to advanced level. Vocabulary is clearly presented and contextualized on left-hand pages with practice activities on facing right-hand pages. The perfect choice for advanced-level students wanting to build their vocabulary skills. English Vocabulary in Use: Advanced includes over 2,000 new words and expressions which are presented and practised in typical contexts appropriate to this level. The book is informed by the Cambridge International Corpus to ensure that the vocabulary selected is useful and up-to-date.
McCarthy Michael, O'Dell Felicity
English Vocabulary in Use Elementary - without answers edition - is a vocabulary book for learners of English, primarily designed for classroom work. 60 easy-to-use units: vocabulary items are presented and explained on left-hand pages with a variety of follow up activities on right-hand pages. Presents and explains new words in context and shows learners how to use them and how to work out rules for using them. Based on a corpus of real written and spoken language. Suggests tips and techniques for good vocabulary learning habits. Includes a detailed index with phonetic transcription. Beautifully illustrated in full colour.
McCarthy Michael, O'Dell Felicity
2nd edition. — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The perfect choice for upper-intermediate-level students wanting to build their vocabulary. English Vocabulary in Use: Upper-intermediate includes over 2,000 new words and expressions which are presented and practised in typical contexts appropriate to this level. The accompanying CD-ROM provides interesting and enjoyable exercises to further challenge the learner, as well as extra listening practice and help with pronunciation. The book is informed by the Cambridge International Corpus to ensure that the vocabulary selected is useful and up to date. A test book is also available for extra practice. Ideal for self-study or classroom use.
This book will help you learn more than 2,000 words and phrases, and you can use it without a teacher. There are 100 units in the book. You can study them in any order, but the first four units have information about vocabulary that will help you with your learning.
Studying a new unit.
When you are studying a unit for the first time, you need to be active when you are learning.
• With a new word or phrase, say it aloud (speak it so you can hear it], and repeat it to yourself silently [in your head, not speaking]. If you have the CD-ROM that goes with the book, use it to check the pronunciation.
• Use a highlighter pen to mark words you think arc important or difficult.
• Write down new words and phrases in your notebook. (See Unit 2 for more information.)
• Always try to write an example sentence for new words. You can choose an example from this book or a dictionary, but an example from your own life will often help you to remember a word, e.g. I shared a flat with an Australian girl when I was in London last year.
• Do exercises in pencil, then you can rub them out (using a rubber) and do them again later. This is a good way to revise vocabulary.
Richard Hogg, David Denison
The history and development of English, from the earliest known writings to its status today as a dominant world language, is a subject of major importance to linguists and historians. In this authoritative volume, a team of international experts cover the entire recorded history of the English language,outliningitsdevelopmentoverﬁfteencenturies.With an emphasis on more recent periods, every key stage in the history of the language is discussed, with full accounts of standardisation, names, the distribution of English in Britain and North America, and its global spread. New historical surveys of the crucial aspects of the language (sounds, word structure, grammar and vocabulary) are presented, and historical changes that have affected English are treated as a continuing process, helping to explain the shape of the languagetoday.Comprehensiveandfullyup-to-date,thevolume will be indispensable to all advanced students, scholars and teachers in this prominent ﬁeld.
richard hogg is Smith Professor of Language and Medieval English at the University of Manchester. He is editor of volume 1 of The Cambridge History of the English Language(sixvolumes,1992–2001)andoneofthefounding editorsofthejournalEnglishLanguageandLinguistics(also published by Cambridge University Press). He is author of Metrical Phonology with Christopher McCully (Cambridge University Press, 1986), AGrammar of Old English (1992) and An Introduction to Old English (2002). He is Fellow of theBritishAcademy(1994),andFellowoftheRoyalSociety of Edinburgh (2004).
david denisonisProfessorofEnglishLinguisticsatthe UniversityofManchester,andhasheldvisitingappointments at the universities of Amsterdam, British Columbia, Santiago de Compostela and Paris 3. He is one of the founding editorsofthejournalEnglishLanguageandLinguistics(publishedbyCambridgeUniversityPress),andauthorofEnglish HistoricalSyntax(1993/2004)andofthe‘Syntax’chapterin volume4ofTheCambridgeHistoryoftheEnglishLanguage (1998). He is also co-editor of Fuzzy Grammar (2004).
O.Clive, L.Christina, S.Paul
The course that gets students talking
Fun, motivating lessons that work
The perfect balance of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and skills to get your students speaking English with confidence.
A complete package for teachers and students
The Teacher's Book gives you the support you need, and all the components work together for more effective learning.
Successful Writing Proficiency consists of nine units which cover all types of composition writing (description narratives, letters, discursive essays, articles, reviews) required at advanced levels. Each unit starts with a lean listening activity through which the basic plan for the type of writing the unit deals with is introduced. This also sen as a brainstorming activity, giving the teacher the chance to elicit useful language and ideas on the topic discussion. Detailed theory and plans are provided to be used as a reference by students. A variety of models which the theory is applied are followed by exercises to improve students’ writing skills, focusing on registering a style. The exercises are graded, leading to the acquisition of those skills needed for students to be able to write successfully at advanced levels. Topic identification, “discuss and write” sections and study check sections reinforce students’ knowledge and remind them of the structures previously presented, thus helping them revise the write areas covered in the book. The Teacher’s Book provides answers to the exercises, model plans, transcripts of 1 listening exercises and useful teaching tips. At the back of the Teacher’s Book are marked model compositions help teachers mark students’ compositions. The book is accompanied by a cassette with all the listening exercise The units can either be presented in the order they appear in the book or teachers can select the unit they want resent according to their own judgment and their students’ needs. The course can be covered in approximately 30 one-hour lessons.
This attractive resource is organized thematically in segments covering the history of the English language (Old English, Middle English, Modern English, English in different parts of the world); English vocabulary (its nature, structure, sources, etymology, and the dimensions of the lexicon); English grammar (structure of words and sentences, definitions of the main branches of grammar); spoken and written English; English usage (varieties of discourse and regional, social, and personal usage variations); and how people learn English and new ways to study English. Appendixes include a glossary, a list of symbols and abbreviations, references and addresses, further readings, and indexes of names, items, and topics.
Открою Вам секреты ремесла, от меня не убудет, а вам будет существенная
Книга репетитора Английского языка по скайпу Как кто произносит слово “английский”? Одни солидно, другие с оттенком зависти, а некоторые даже с тихим ужасом. Зачем учить иностранные языки? В Средние века без свободной латыни нельзя было выбиться в люди. Я скажу так: Иностранный язык - это, как еще одна планка оперативной памяти компьютера, это аппгрейд интеллекта, развивающая гимнастика для ума. Скажу по себе, я знаю 3 языка, говорю реактивно и красочно. Даже если просто учить слова, то запоминание и усвоение информации зашкаливает. Можно за день выучить 50 новых слов, благодаря правильным (секрет фирмы) методикам. Сейчас в глобальном мире - на Западе, смотрят тупые американские комедии, а русские любят жизненные драмы “Вор”, “Брат”, “Глянец”. Учить языки надо с учетом менталитета, так проще и надежнее Мотивация учить этот язык …. Это не только смотреть демотиваторы. Могу рассказать истории пострашнее Стивена Кинга